The Motion of Fluids, Natural and Artificial; in particular that of the Air and Water.

CLARE Martin (1737)



Second Edition. 8vo. (205 x 126mm). [16], 369, [23] pp., with nine engraved plates and the engraved arms of Richard Boyle above the dedication. Some very slight foxing and browning to the plates and two small institutional stamps [see below] in the lower margin of the title-page and D1 but otherwise very clean. Contemporary red sheepskin by John Brindley [see below], covers with a wide gilt-tooled border, spine tooled in gilt, gilt edges, marbled endleaves (rebacked with the old spine laid down, carefully refurbished at the edges and headcaps, new label).


London: for Edward Symon, 1737

First published in 1735 and dedicated to Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth. This edition was dedicated to Richard Boyle, the 'Architect Earl' of Burlington. The third edition (1747) was dedicated to Henry Arthur, Lord Herbert of Chirbury (later 10th Earl of Pembroke). 


The handsome dedication copy to the Earl of Burllngton from his library at Chiswick House - printed on fine paper and bound by John Brindley - of a book which makes practical scientific experimentation accessible for young people including work by Robert Boyle on air pumps.


Clare wrote in his dedication to Richard Boyle, that "I Esteem it no ordinary Happiness, that I have Leave, under Your Patronage and Protection, to offer to the Publick the Second Edition of a Book, the principal subject [of the book] whereof has been thought worthy the Consideration of the Great and Learned Mr. BOYLE, your LORDSHIP'S Uncle, by whom it was cultivated with uncommon Diligence and Success. ... The Part Your Noble House, My Lord, has long had in publick Beneficence and Utility, is too well known to need any farther Declaration. The Family of BOYLE has not been more conspicuous for its numerous and extensive Nobility, than for having produced Men famous in their Generation, and such as have been approved the FRIENDS OF MANKIND." 


Martin Clare (d. 1751) ran a successful private boarding house for students in Soho Square known as the The Soho Academy where boys were taught mathematics, drawing, French, geography, dancing, theology and fencing. They were also prepared to earn a living and his book, Youth's Introduction to Trade and Business" was printed twelve times between 1720 and 1792. He was also a leading Freemason as were his three dedicatees, Viscount Weymouth (Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England 1735-6), the Earl of Burlington (whose self-designed Palladian villa at Chiswick is said to have been modelled on a masonic temple) and the Earl of Pembroke. Clare was elected to the Royal Society in March 1735, his citation stating: "Mr Martin Clare Master of the Academy in Soho Square London Who is a good Mathematician well skill'd both in Natural & Experimental Philosophy, and a great Promoter of the Same: Is very desirous of becoming a Member of this Honble Society, He is therefore recommended by us."


The book contains notes on various experiments with air pumps, water pumps, gravity, resistance, barometers, thermometers as well as meteorological observations. The title-page makes it clear that the work was intended "to be understood by the unlearned" and Clare goes on to note that, "the young Philosopher may certainly be assisted hereby in his first Searches after Truth: Besides which Advantage, his mind will be better prepared for receiving Lectures in Natural and Experimental Philosophy; which might easily be introduced into most regular Societies, and so become of singular Use and Benefit to Mankind. That which by Experiment is made the object of our sense, is generally found to leave deeper Impressions on the Mind, than Instruction in any other Way."


Clare noted in his advertisement to the book that the work is derived from "the substance of some lectures read to a set of gentlemen." This set of gentlemen were all members of a Masonic Lodge which met at the King's Arms Tavern in The Strand. Arguing that Freemasonry had a "powerful - if not seminal role" in the dissemination of Enlightenment ideas Ric Berman noted that:


"Few masonic minute books survive from the 1720s and 1730s, but one which does is that of the lodge at the King's Arms Tavern in the Strand, whose members were mainly middling professional men, with a leavening of landed gentry. Under the de facto leadership of Martin Clare, the acting master and senior warden,a leading educator and another FRS, the lodge was renowned for its lectures. These were given not only by Clare but also by members and their guests, and centred on a range of subjects in which they were either practitioners or hobbyists. The lodge offers a strong example of what Clare terms 'useful and entertaining conversation' designed to encourage an understanding of the 'grand design.' At least thirty-six lectures are recorded at the King's Arms lodge in the decade 1733-43, including ones that explained new scientific discoveries, inventions, techniques and apparatus. Other lectures covered art, architecture and mathematics." - Richard (Ric) Berman, "'We apply these tools to our morals': eighteenth-century freemasonry, a case study in teleology", in W. Gibson, D. O'Brien & M. Turda, eds, Teleology & Modernity (2020), p. 19-39; 29).


A characteristic binding by John Brindley, the leading London binder of the second quarter of the 18th Century. Born in Staffordshire, where his father was rector of Chedleton, John appears to have been well-educated although he left school at an early age to take up an apprenticeship in London with John Smith of the Merchant Taylors' Company in 1705, whose trade seems to be unknown, and later turned over to Mark Foster. He was made free in 1713 and by 1723 he was established in Little Britain in the City of London as a bookbinder and in 1728 opened his well-known bookshop in New Bond Street. Bookbinding remained one of his main activities for Brindley was appointed Bookbinder to Queen Caroline and to Frederick, Prince of Wales, and included Isaac Newton and much of the aristocracy amongst his clients. Much of the bindery's time was spent in binding his own publications for shop stock and these were offered in various styles to catch the eye of the passing trade.  A large part of his business was selling antiquarian books and he travelled in France and the Low Countries acquiring stock for his catalogues where they were offered, "magnificently bound in morocco, and other elegant bindings by the Proprietor." He died in 1758, aged about 65. The bookselling business was carried on by his widow and survived into the 20th Century under other names. In its heyday the bindery developed a distinctive style and examples have been widely published. Many of his tools are rather simple, often with geometric designs, and not very finely cut. The pricnipal tools used here can be seen on numerous published bindings. It was also his habit to use cheaper dyed sheepskins (more prone to wear as here) instead of morocco (goatskin) for his luxury bindings.


We have not traced any other published bindings made by Brindley for Lord Burlington, as the bulk of his library remains intact and unstudied at Chatsworth (see below) but he did make special bindings for his cousin John Boyle, 5th Earl of Orrery (1707-62), including his personal interleaved fine-paper copies of his poems, Verses by a Young Nobleman, on the Death of His Grace the Duke of B---- (London, ?1736), The First Ode of the First Book of Horace (Dublin, 1741) and Pyrrha. The Fifth Ode of the First Book of Horace Imitated (Dublin, 1741).Later in the collections of Carl H. Pforzheimer and Gerald E. Slater (Christie, New York, 12/2/1982, lots 26, 29, 30 [illustrated]; the last is now in The Bancroft Library, UC-Berkeley.


Provenance: Richard Boyle (1694-1753), 3rd Earl of Burlington & 4th Earl of Cork; architect, collector, patron of the arts, dedicatee of numerous books (39 in total), perhaps most notably Isaac Ware's handsome translation of the Four Books of Andrea Palladio's Architecture (1738) and sponsor of William Kent's publication of The Designs of Inigo Jones (1727) and the edition of Palladio's Fabricche antiche (1730), the last of which inspired Alexander Pope's Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington (1731), later titled Of False Taste. He is holding a copy of The Designs of Inigo Jones bound in red morocco in his portrait by George Knapton, now at Chatsworth. The striking gilt-tooled binding has all the hallmarks of a dedication copy. Whilst restoration work was being done on the binding a sheet of later marbled paper was lifted from the front pastedown which shows the removal of a bookplate. It is not clear why the bookplate was removed - it was present when the book was offered by Bernard Quaritch in Catalogue 348 (December 15, 1882) no. 13584: "dedication copy to Richard Boyle Earl of Cork, old English red morocco extra, gilt edges, rich ornamental borders of gold on the sides, with Lord Burlington's bookplate ..."


On Burlington's death without male issue the Earldom of Burlington became extinct while the Earldom of Cork passed to his cousin the 5th Earl of Orrery. Burlington's properties, art collections, and library, passed on the death of his widow, Lady Dorothy Savile in 1758 to his eldest grandson William Cavendish, later 5th Duke of Devonshire (his daughter Charlotte, suo jure Baroness Clifford, d. 1754, having married the Marquess of Hartington, later 4th Duke of Devonshire - "Charlotte's inheritance included Lismore castle and vast estates in County Waterford in Ireland, the Clifford and Savile estates in Yorkshire, including Bolton Abbey and Londesborough, and Chiswick House and Burlington House in London, both built by her father,, as well as treasures equal to those possessed by the Cavendish family." (Nicolas Barker, The Devonshire Inheritance: Five Centuries of Collecting at Chatsworth, 2003, p. 51).


Nicolas Barker's catalogue accompanied a touring exhibition of the USA; it included a manuscript catalogue of the Earl of Burlington's library at Chiswick compiled in January 1742 (no. 83). In an analysis of the library as it stood at Chiswick in January 1742, Philip Ayres calculated that it contained 1318 titles in 1942 volumes (42 titles were added subsequently). With a "notable predominance" (Ayres)  on books on architecture, art, and antiquities, there was also a notable science section in which Ayres mentions Mark Carey's Motion of Fluids, Natural and Artificial (1737) [p. 121] - Philip Ayres, "Burlington's Library at Chiswick," in Studies in Bibliography, Vol. 45 (1992), p. 113-127. See also: W. Jack Rhoden, "The Genealogy of a Book Collection: An early History of the Cavendish Family's Book Collection, 1599-1811," in Midlands History, Vol. 45/3 (2020), p. 309-25 [available online].


By descent at Chatsworth to William George Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire (1790-1858), "the bachelor Duke"; he was given one great library by an uncle, the scientific library of Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), a grandson of the 2nd Duke, and purchased another, of Thomas Dampier, Bishop of Ely (1749-1812), that was strong in early editions of the classics; this copy of Clare's book (presumably supplanted by Henry Cavendish's) sold in the second of two sales of duplicates from the library, by R. H. Evans, 24+/11/1815, lot 220 "Clare's Motion of Fluids, morocco - -  1737" for 4 shillings.


Later Provenance: Old bookseller's catalogue note clipped and pasted to the front flyleaf "old crimson morocco gilt, gilt edges. ... Presentation copy from the Author to Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, to whom the work is dedicated." Various bookseller's pencil notes ("dedication copy?"). Pencil name "D. Laing" on the front flyleaf: David Laing (1793-1878), Scottish antiquary and librarian of the Signet Library, Edinburgh; his sale, First Portion, Sotheby, 1/12/1879, lot 771 ( "Dedication copy to Boyle, Earl of Cork, finely bound French red morocco extra, g.e."), £3/3/-. Bernard Quaritch, various catalogues 1880-87 (including the one cited above), £4/10/-. Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite [33rd degree of Freemasons], Southern Jurisdiction, Washington, DC; with mid-20th Century blurred pink ink library stamp at the foot of the title-page and D1 ("LIBRARY / OF THE / SUP. COUNCIL / SOWU ?SECTION") over-stamped in black ink "Discard Authorized April 1985". Bought by Maggs from a US bookseller in 2019.



Stock Code: 232629

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